Black Hole

The Black hole is a gravitational singularity: a product of gravitational collapse, an unstoppable compression of the gravitating mass under the uncompensated action of its own gravity.Under normal observation conditions, a black hole is represented by astronomical objects. There are unconfirmed assumptions about the existence of microscopic (quantum) black holes.


  1. The existence of black holes is possible, because the mechanism of formation of a black hole is completely physical, i.e. is real. A black hole can form as a result of an implosion of a star, there are no physical prohibitions for this. Only the explosion power is sufficient to compress the substance of the core of the star to a density at which the gravity of neutrons exceeds the repulsive component of the strong nuclear interaction. Under the power of this attraction begins a collapse, the substance of the star falls unstoppably inside itself, a black hole has arisen. This means that black holes exist: explosions of the required power are observed in the universe.
  2. But the free unstoppable fall of matter into itself collides with SRT: the rate of fall can not increase infinitely, it only asymptotically approaches the maximum velocity (the speed of light in a vacuum). The theoretical radius of the sphere at a given mass, at which the falling substance would reach the maximum velocity, denotes the so-called event horizon. But physically there is no event horizon. Matter can not to reach it, much less "fall in it", because this would contradict SRT. A black hole in the traditional sense does not exist. Real black holes are only an infinite approximation to the notion that is now being denoted by this term. In reality, all material that has fallen into a black hole is always outside the event horizon, although it is moving to it. A black hole is a physical (imperfect) singularity that tends to a mathematical (ideal) one.
  3. From the point of view of an outside observer, an object falling into a black hole will endlessly approach the event horizon, but it will never reach it. The observed drop will be slowed down due to relativistic time dilation in the local strength of the gravitational field, which infinitely increases as approaches the event horizon.

    It should be borne in mind that near the event horizon, the inverse-square law, immanent to undistorted three-dimensional space, is corrected by the distortion of space. As we approach the event horizon, the local gravity field strength grows faster than is determined by this law, and becomes infinite at the event horizon.

  4. The black hole contains a horizon external to the event horizon, at the level of which gravitation begins to exceed strong repulsion: the collapse horizon.
  5. For the space between the collapse horizon and the event horizon, the escape velocity is finite and less than the light speed. The matter in this space can be accelerated by the energy of the processes occurring there to velocities exceeding the escape velocity and to go beyond the horizon of collapse. The massless elementary particles that form radiation are all the more free to go beyond it.
  6. Specific black hole effects are manifested both above the collapse horizon, and below it. The closer to the event horizon, the more low-level physics fundamentals (see Stratums of Reality) determine their character, so that in the limit, at the level of the event horizon, the black hole is simplified to the information continuum.

    Thus, above the event horizon, a concentric layered structure is formed:

    Чёрная дыра

    Of course, in the figure, the structure of the black hole is shown schematically. In reality, the thickness of the layers is different, decreasing from the periphery to the center, the boundaries between the layers are blurred, and the rotation gives the black hole the shape of the ellipsoid.

    The structure of a black hole, in the direction from the outside inwards:

    1. Free fall of substance. A black hole is surrounded by an open space in which a substance falls into a black hole under the influence of its gravity.

      In the case when the substance already fallen into a black hole has a nonzero total torque (that is, always), it rotates. Unevenness of its density, rotating with it, by variations in the gravitational field cause forces in the substance that pull it into the equatorial plane. This forms the accretion disk. The faster the black hole rotates, the denser, thinner and more extensive the accretion disk.

      By the same principle of the unevenness of the gravitational field, the stars pull its planets into the equatorial plane of the ecliptic, and the planets pull their satellites and rings into their equatorial planes. And the flat shape of the spiral galaxy is determined by the same rotation effect of the central black hole. More precisely, the shape of any galaxy is determined by the rotation of its central black hole: the faster this rotation, the more flat the galaxy has.

    2. Tidal destructuring. On approaching the black hole, its relatively compact size with powerful gravitational field lead to a significant increase the gravity gradient over distances comparable with the dimensions of matter structures. At a certain height, the difference in attraction of different fragments reaches values that overcome the intermolecular Coulomb attraction in matter. The structured substance begins to be destroyed by tidal forces up to individual molecules.
    3. Mechanical destructuring. The substance falls into a black hole not vertically, but over a tightly twisted spiral. Vertically it could fall only in the ideal case, if it fell strictly along the line passing through the center of the black hole, which in reality is impossible, because the center is a mathematical point. In reality there is always a deviation from the vertical, and therefore the fall goes into a spiral trajectory. The closer to the event horizon, the denser the spiral. In the limit, on the event horizon, the distance between adjacent turns would be strictly zero, but until this point (forbidden in SRT), the matter does not reach: long before the substance of the neighboring turns begins to interact with each other. A faster inner turn collides with a slower outer one. Initially, far from the event horizon, the energy of these collisions is sufficient only for further destruction and grinding of the structure of matter already torn by tidal forces.
    4. Bond cleavage. With moving deeper, the interaction of a spirally moving substance becomes so intense that its energy begins to suffice for the disruption of molecules into atoms.
    5. The ionization of atoms begins even at the depths of the splitting of molecules, but in the deeper layer the rapid relative motion of atoms in extreme closeness to each other leads to a complete breakdown of the electron shells. All substance is converted into plasma.
    6. Nuclear fission. More deeper the energy of collisions only grows, and it begins to suffice for the reactions of fission of nuclei in their collisions. Arise the chain reactions, there is a continuous "nuclear explosion".
    7. Nuclear fusion. Even deeper the collisions energy begins to suffice for synthesis reactions, and the deeper, the higher the interaction energy, and the heavier elements are formed as a result of these reactions. Within this layer, the entire spectrum of elements of the periodic table is formed. Exactly the black holes, and mainly the galaxy's central black holes are responsible for all the diversity of chemistry of galaxies.

      The products of the nuclear reactions of decay and synthesis are ejected from the black hole into the surrounding space, since the energy release during these reactions accelerates some of them to velocities exceeding the escape velocity at this height above the event horizon.

      In a rotating black hole, the release of products occurs predominantly in its polar regions. Rotation pulls gravitating mass to its equatorial region, as a result of which the escape velocity at poles is much smaller. With rapid rotation, the difference becomes so great that the ejected matter forms jets, the more pronounced, the faster the rotation. For the radiation generated by the reactions, this effect is practically indifferent, so the black hole is observed brightly in all directions.

      The bulged halo observed above the plane of spiral galaxies is mainly the stars-illuminated reaction products of the central black hole that are ejected into space transversely to the plane of the galaxy. They gradually settle on the body of the galaxy to take part in the formation of astrophysical objects that make up the galaxy.

    8. Free neutrons. In the underlying layer, the density of the falling substance becomes so high that electrons and protons can not avoid meeting, join and turn into neutrons. All matter becomes a mass of free neutrons. It would be like a neutron star, if not for the underlying gravitational mass. It causes the neutron substance to continue to fall inside the black hole.
    9. The collapse horizon. At this boundary, the gravitational attraction of neutrons among themselves begins to exceed the strong nuclear repulsion acting between them. The fall of matter into the black hole becomes unstoppable, but as before, the upper part of the neutron energy spectrum throws out some of them outside the black hole.

      In general, the release of matter occurs from all horizons of the black hole. All of them lie above the event horizon. At all, processes take place, the energy of which, due to gravity, is close to that which should give the escape velocity for this horizon. There is an analogy with the fallen of ball from the height: it jumps almost to the same height as it was dropped. You need only a small addition of energy, so that the ball rises above the drop point. Such an additive is given, for example, by nuclear reactions at the horizons of nuclear fission and synthesis.

    10. Quark-gluon plasma. Further falling of matter inside the compressing gravitational field destroys finally neutrons. The substance passes into the state of a quark-gluon plasma. It is not longer a real substance, because the quarks in the essential part manifest themselves as concepts, and not as exemplars.

      But even from this level, the release of matter outside the black hole continues to occur. Of course, after leaving the quark-gluon plasma zone, the quarks are immediately bound by the onfinement|confinement to hadrons, forming a "new" substance. This is the most informatio-pure matter of all that is thrown out by a black hole, because carries minimal information about state, which preceded the fall into black hole. In jets of a black hole, such a substance gives birth to "young" stars. The radiation emanating from this level has an almost perfect spectrum of an absolutely black body.

      In this case, products thrown from the overlying layers are heavily loaded with preliminary information (the higher the layer, the greater). Due to this, in spite of the rejuvenating effect of the central black hole, the galaxy retains its characteristic of chemistry for a long time.

    11. Free concepts. Finally, in the lower layer, almost at the horizon of events, where time is almost stayed, and the strength of the gravitational field tends to infinity, quarks lose their structure. At this level, there are only concepts. Slightly higher - more complex. A key role among them has the concepts of mass, direction, distance: they create the gravity that forms the overlying levels of the black hole. Below even they lose meaning, giving way to the simplest, basic concepts of the complexity hierarchy of the universe.

      And this is fundamentally important: physical concepts are not present on the event horizon, they are not applied to the singularity effects, operating with infinity. Due to this, the black hole remains a real physical object, and not a mathematical abstraction, on which the researchers in the epoch of the Big Impasse spend their time and energy producting the fictions and aperceptions.

    12. The event horizon is the level at which the simplification of concepts reaches the absolute. No concept anymore makes sense, that is, it does not carry information. Information is absent (information continuum), time is absent (stands), space is absent (represented by a mathematical point).

      As already mentioned, for an external observer, the event horizon is a sphere on the surface of which the velocity of a matter falling into a black hole would reach a maximum determined in the STR.

      Dilettantes, and sometimes experts ask the question: what is inside the black hole. (For example, experts in the theory of superstrings (fictitious) consider a string inside this sphere, whose ends sometimes peep out beyond it.) This question is meaningless. There is no "inside" this sphere. Only space can contain something, and it, being warped by gravity, simply skirted this observed non-existent volume. If we draw through a black hole an ordinary abstract geometric straight line, then we will get the impression that the straight line has gone right through. But on closer examination it will be found out that on the approach to the horizon of events the straight line curved and went around the horizon of events from the outside. So it remained a geometric straight line in space, distorted by a black hole.

      An observer falling into a black hole (if he retained the original ability to perceive), this volume does not observe, because it is in the topology of the curved space. For him, the event horizon is just a mathematical point in the center of a black hole. More precisely, since the observer is always outside the event horizon, and therefore remains an outside observer, for him the event horizon is still a sphere. But it decreases infinitely (tends to a point) as the observer approaches the center.

      More strictly, if we assume that the original perception of the observer is not preserved, but inscribed in space, then the curvature of the space affects him in a natural way, then no matter how deep the observer falls inside the black hole, he will observe the event horizon constantly as a sphere the same relative size as he had seen it when he was an outside observer. Visually this would simply look like an absent of approximation to this sphere.


  1. A central black hole is necessarily present in all galaxies: this is the principal forming element of the galaxy. A central black hole provides the galaxy with "clean" energy (the radiation of an absolutely black body) and "young" substance purified from the information, necessary for a new star formation, and also partially an "old" substance that preserves the continuity of the specifics of the chemistry of the galaxy. The central black hole is also the basis for the formation of the galaxy: the higher its angular momentum, the more pronounced a flat spiral structure has a galaxy.
  2. The black hole is not eternal: it lives only as long as there is replenishment of substance from outside. If to deprive the black hole of this recharge, after some time the products of its internal processes that have overcome the escape velosity will carry beyond it a quantity of matter and energy that the gravitational forces will be more insufficient to retain the state of collapse. The remaining matter and energy will dissipate. Such events are fixed in astronomy as unprecedentedly powerful gamma-flares. But from the point of view of an external observer, the real life span of such a "hungry" black hole can be significant: we must remember about the relativistic time dilation in areas close to the event horizon. For an external observer it may be a long time between the fall of matter in these areas and the return of the products of its "processing".
  3. Microscopic (quantum) black holes do not exist. At the micro level, there is nothing that would give the physical basis for their existence, equivalent to the above.
  4. "White" holes do not exist. Physics, mirrored above, is impossible.
  5. "Wormholes" through black holes do not exist. The above-described physics does not have anything in common with the idea of wormholes. Traveling through the universe on wormholes is an unscientific fantasy.
  6. "Evaporation" of black holes (Hawking radiation) does not exist. This is a speculative idea, based on the notion of some unreal abstract object.
version 1 of 06.11.2017 08:59 msk (actual)
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