The Black hole is a gravitational singularity: a product of gravitational collapse, an unstoppable compression of the gravitating mass under the uncompensated action of its own gravity.Under normal observation conditions, a black hole is represented by astronomical objects. There are unconfirmed assumptions about the existence of microscopic (quantum) black holes.
It should be borne in mind that near the event horizon, the inverse-square law, immanent to undistorted three-dimensional space, is corrected by the distortion of space. As we approach the event horizon, the local gravity field strength grows faster than is determined by this law, and becomes infinite at the event horizon.
Thus, above the event horizon, a concentric layered structure is formed:
Of course, in the figure, the structure of the black hole is shown schematically. In reality, the thickness of the layers is different, decreasing from the periphery to the center, the boundaries between the layers are blurred, and the rotation gives the black hole the shape of the ellipsoid.
The structure of a black hole, in the direction from the outside inwards:
In the case when the substance already fallen into a black hole has a nonzero total torque (that is, always), it rotates. Unevenness of its density, rotating with it, by variations in the gravitational field cause forces in the substance that pull it into the equatorial plane. This forms the accretion disk. The faster the black hole rotates, the denser, thinner and more extensive the accretion disk.
By the same principle of the unevenness of the gravitational field, the stars pull its planets into the equatorial plane of the ecliptic, and the planets pull their satellites and rings into their equatorial planes. And the flat shape of the spiral galaxy is determined by the same rotation effect of the central black hole. More precisely, the shape of any galaxy is determined by the rotation of its central black hole: the faster this rotation, the more flat the galaxy has.
The products of the nuclear reactions of decay and synthesis are ejected from the black hole into the surrounding space, since the energy release during these reactions accelerates some of them to velocities exceeding the escape velocity at this height above the event horizon.
In a rotating black hole, the release of products occurs predominantly in its polar regions. Rotation pulls gravitating mass to its equatorial region, as a result of which the escape velocity at poles is much smaller. With rapid rotation, the difference becomes so great that the ejected matter forms jets, the more pronounced, the faster the rotation. For the radiation generated by the reactions, this effect is practically indifferent, so the black hole is observed brightly in all directions.
The bulged halo observed above the plane of spiral galaxies is mainly the stars-illuminated reaction products of the central black hole that are ejected into space transversely to the plane of the galaxy. They gradually settle on the body of the galaxy to take part in the formation of astrophysical objects that make up the galaxy.
In general, the release of matter occurs from all horizons of the black hole. All of them lie above the event horizon. At all, processes take place, the energy of which, due to gravity, is close to that which should give the escape velocity for this horizon. There is an analogy with the fallen of ball from the height: it jumps almost to the same height as it was dropped. You need only a small addition of energy, so that the ball rises above the drop point. Such an additive is given, for example, by nuclear reactions at the horizons of nuclear fission and synthesis.
But even from this level, the release of matter outside the black hole continues to occur. Of course, after leaving the quark-gluon plasma zone, the quarks are immediately bound by the onfinement|confinement to hadrons, forming a "new" substance. This is the most informatio-pure matter of all that is thrown out by a black hole, because carries minimal information about state, which preceded the fall into black hole. In jets of a black hole, such a substance gives birth to "young" stars. The radiation emanating from this level has an almost perfect spectrum of an absolutely black body.
In this case, products thrown from the overlying layers are heavily loaded with preliminary information (the higher the layer, the greater). Due to this, in spite of the rejuvenating effect of the central black hole, the galaxy retains its characteristic of chemistry for a long time.
And this is fundamentally important: physical concepts are not present on the event horizon, they are not applied to the singularity effects, operating with infinity. Due to this, the black hole remains a real physical object, and not a mathematical abstraction, on which the researchers in the epoch of the Big Impasse spend their time and energy producting the fictions and aperceptions.
As already mentioned, for an external observer, the event horizon is a sphere on the surface of which the velocity of a matter falling into a black hole would reach a maximum determined in the STR.
Dilettantes, and sometimes experts ask the question: what is inside the black hole. (For example, experts in the theory of superstrings (fictitious) consider a string inside this sphere, whose ends sometimes peep out beyond it.) This question is meaningless. There is no "inside" this sphere. Only space can contain something, and it, being warped by gravity, simply skirted this observed non-existent volume. If we draw through a black hole an ordinary abstract geometric straight line, then we will get the impression that the straight line has gone right through. But on closer examination it will be found out that on the approach to the horizon of events the straight line curved and went around the horizon of events from the outside. So it remained a geometric straight line in space, distorted by a black hole.
An observer falling into a black hole (if he retained the original ability to perceive), this volume does not observe, because it is in the topology of the curved space. For him, the event horizon is just a mathematical point in the center of a black hole. More precisely, since the observer is always outside the event horizon, and therefore remains an outside observer, for him the event horizon is still a sphere. But it decreases infinitely (tends to a point) as the observer approaches the center.
More strictly, if we assume that the original perception of the observer is not preserved, but inscribed in space, then the curvature of the space affects him in a natural way, then no matter how deep the observer falls inside the black hole, he will observe the event horizon constantly as a sphere the same relative size as he had seen it when he was an outside observer. Visually this would simply look like an absent of approximation to this sphere.
version 1 of 01.10.2017 08:59 msk (actual)